Overtraining Syndrome It is no secret among athletes that in order to improve performance you've got to work hard. However, hard training breaks you down and makes you weaker.
Having distinguished it from uniformly progressive disorders, he renamed the condition schizophrenia. While Kraepelin continued to define catatonia as a type of dementing illness, both he and Bleuler recognized that the syndrome could be found in different types of psychosis [ 56 ].
Other clinicians increasingly identified that catatonia was a medical condition that occurred in many settings [ 5678 ]. The next major development towards a modern understanding of catatonia proceeded as more clinicians recognized its association with affective disorders.
An emerging body of work supported recognition that catatonia was not merely a form of schizophrenia, but could be found in mood disorders as well as in a variety of medical conditions [ 89101112 ]. Again, this progress towards informing our modern knowledge of catatonia—specifically, its common association with affective illness—was left relatively unnoticed, likely overshadowed by interest in infectious diseases affecting the brain.
These conditions could confound the inexperienced clinician by the nature and severity of their psychomotor symptoms.
Early prospective studies revealed that untreated catatonia had a high mortality rate in a variety of settings [ 9 ]. This would easily be accounted for by underlying medical conditions. In spite of an evolving consensus that catatonic syndromes were oft associated with medical illnesses, clinicians from the psychoanalytic school remained focused on analytic explanations.
Rigorous medical examinations were often neglected. A review of the analytic literature reveals case reports of catatonia, but few scientific studies. Consideration of catatonia as a defense mechanism with sensorimotor regression was a likely psychoanalytic interpretation. Analytical concepts of catatonia were virtually impossible to confirm [ 1314 ].
Not surprisingly, early psychoanalysts had difficulty treating catatonia. This work was compromised, however, by common institutional diseases of the era, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis—which made long term follow-up of the natural history of the catatonic syndrome very difficult.
Similarly, the works of Kraepelin and Hoch documented attempts to collect longitudinal data, but these efforts suffered from limitations of the medical therapies of the time as well [ 5111516 ].
Gjessing described a condition he referred to as periodic catatonia in the s [ 17 ].
This rare variety of the syndrome was characterized by phases of catatonic symptoms that quickly alternated with completely asymptomatic periods [ 1718 ]. Gjessing reported cases where patients were normal one day, then catatonic the next—only to return to an asymptomatic phase the following day.
Case reports of recurrent brief episodes of catatonia followed by total remission [ 1920 ] remain in the literature today. Treatment of periodic catatonia was often unusual. Gjessing was among clinicians testing treatments for catatonia.
He followed patients over a period of years, and considered them to be candidates for metabolic studies [ 17 ]. His research detected changes in blood nitrogen levels that correlated with stages of stupor and excitement [ 1718 ].Find comprehensive medical reference information including disease symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up; plus drug and medication dosing, interactions, adverse effects, and more on Medscape, a free, comprehensive, and current resource for physicians and other healthcare professionals.
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The patients’ signs and symptoms were carefully documented in these records, yielding rich and detailed descriptions of behavior. Such exceptionally specific information allowed for reconstruction and retrospective diagnosis using the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) [ 21 ].
Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in , understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously.
Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. Nov 13, · Free Essays on Trauma.
Search. numbing, emotional distancing, self-hypnosis, splitting, and dissociation. She also suffered some of the more ordinary signs and symptoms common to most childhood traumas-fears Identifying and understanding the causes, treatments, and symptoms in these disorders give a clearer understanding of the.