The civil war

The American Civil War, —, resulted from long-standing sectional differences and questions not fully resolved when the United States Constitution was ratified inprimarily the issue of slavery and states rights. Over the course of the Civil War weapons ranged from obsolete flintlocks to state-of-the-art repeaters.

The civil war

Before the Civil War the United States experienced a whole generation of nearly unremitting political crisis. Underlying the problem was the fact that America in the early 19th century had been a country, not a nation.

The major… Prelude to war The secession of the Southern states in chronological order, South CarolinaMississippiFloridaAlabamaGeorgiaLouisianaTexasVirginiaArkansasTennesseeand North Carolina in —61 and the ensuing outbreak of armed hostilities were the culmination of decades of growing sectional friction over slavery.

Between and the economy of the Northern states was rapidly modernizing and diversifying. Although agriculture—mostly smaller farms that relied on free labour—remained the dominant sector in the North, industrialization had taken root there.

Moreover, Northerners had invested heavily in an expansive and varied transportation system that included canals, roads, steamboats, and railroads; in financial industries such as banking and insurance; and in a large communications network that featured inexpensive, widely available newspapers, magazines, and books, along with the telegraph.

By contrast, the Southern economy was based principally on large farms plantations that produced commercial crops such as cotton and that relied on slaves as the main labour force. Rather than invest in factories or railroads as Northerners had done, Southerners invested their money in slaves—even more than in land; by84 percent of the capital invested in manufacturing was invested in the free nonslaveholding states.

The civil war

Yet, to Southerners, as late asthis appeared to be a sound business decision. By the per capita wealth of Southern whites was twice that of Northerners, and three-fifths of the wealthiest individuals in the country were Southerners. The extension of slavery into new territories and states had been an issue as far back as the Northwest Ordinance of When the slave territory of Missouri sought statehood inCongress debated for two years before arriving upon the Missouri Compromise of The end of the Mexican-American War in and the roughlysquare miles 1.

The civil war

More and more Northerners, driven by a sense of morality or an interest in protecting free labour, came to believe, in the s, that bondage needed to be eradicated. White Southerners feared that limiting the expansion of slavery would consign the institution to certain death.

Over the course of the decade, the two sides became increasingly polarized and politicians less able to contain the dispute through compromise. When Abraham Lincolnthe candidate of the explicitly antislavery Republican Partywon the presidential electionseven Southern states South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas carried out their threat and seceded, organizing as the Confederate States of America.

Library of Congress, Washington, D. Curiously, this first encounter of what would be the bloodiest war in the history of the United States claimed no victims.

After a hour bombardment, Maj. Robert Anderson surrendered his command of about 85 soldiers to some 5, besieging Confederate troops under P. He proclaimed a naval blockade of the Confederate states, although he insisted that they did not legally constitute a sovereign country but were instead states in rebellion.

Union army volunteer, photograph by Mathew Brady, The Civil War was America's bloodiest and most divisive conflict, pitting the Union Army against the Confederate States of America.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

The war resulted in the deaths of more than , people, with millions more injured and the South left in ruins. Sep 23,  · Watch video · This highly acclaimed mini series traces the course of the U.S. Civil War from the abolitionist movement through all the major battles to the death of President Lincoln and the beginnings of Reconstruction/10(K).

Northerners have also called the Civil War the War to Preserve the Union, the War of the Rebellion (War of the Southern Rebellion), and the War to Make Men Free. Southerners may refer to it as the War Between the States or the War of Northern Aggression. Watch video · The Civil War in the United States began in , after decades of simmering tensions between northern and southern states over slavery, states’ rights .

Prelude to war

American Civil War, also called War Between the States, four-year war (–65) between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of . Oct 15,  · The Civil War was a time of great social and political upheaval. It was also a time of great technological change.

Inventors and military men devised new types of weapons, such as the repeating rifle and the submarine, that forever changed the way that wars were fought.

The Civil War | HistoryNet