Marco s justified martial law

Philippines Table of Contents On September 21,Marcos issued Proclamationdeclaring martial law over the entire country. A total of about 30, detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine Constabulary. Weapons were confiscated, and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were broken up.

This exclusion of "all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien," from the Pacific Coast area on a plea of military necessity in the absence of martial law ought not to be approved.

Such exclusion goes over "the very brink of constitutional power," and falls into the ugly abyss of racism. In dealing with matters relating to the prosecution and progress of a war, we must accord great respect and consideration [p] to the judgments of the military authorities who are on the scene and who have full knowledge of the military facts.

The scope of their discretion must, as a matter of necessity and common sense, be wide. And their judgments ought not to be overruled lightly by those whose training and duties ill-equip them to deal intelligently with matters so vital to the physical security of the nation.

At the same time, however, it is essential that there be definite limits to military discretion, especially where martial law has not been declared. Individuals must not be left impoverished of Marco s justified martial law constitutional rights on a plea of military necessity that has neither substance nor support.

Thus, like other claims conflicting with the asserted constitutional rights of the individual, the military claim must subject itself to the judicial process of having its reasonableness determined and its conflicts with other interests reconciled.

What are the allowable limits of military discretion, and whether or not they have been overstepped in a particular case, are judicial questions. The judicial test of whether the Government, on a plea of military necessity, can validly deprive an individual of any of his constitutional rights is whether the deprivation is reasonably related to a public danger that is so "immediate, imminent, and impending" as not to admit of delay and not to permit the intervention of ordinary constitutional processes to alleviate the danger.

Civilian Exclusion Order No. Being an obvious racial discrimination, the [p] order deprives all those within its scope of the equal protection of the laws as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment. It further deprives these individuals of their constitutional rights to live and work where they will, to establish a home where they choose and to move about freely.

In excommunicating them without benefit of hearings, this order also deprives them of all their constitutional rights to procedural due process.

Yet no reasonable relation to an "immediate, imminent, and impending" public danger is evident to support this racial restriction, which is one of the most sweeping and complete deprivations of constitutional rights in the history of this nation in the absence of martial law.

It must be conceded that the military and naval situation in the spring of was such as to generate a very real fear of invasion of the Pacific Coast, accompanied by fears of sabotage and espionage in that area.

The military command was therefore justified in adopting all reasonable means necessary to combat these dangers. In adjudging the military action taken in light of the then apparent dangers, we must not erect too high or too meticulous standards; it is necessary only that the action have some reasonable relation to the removal of the dangers of invasion, sabotage and espionage.

But the exclusion, either temporarily or permanently, of all persons with Japanese blood in their veins has no such reasonable relation. And that relation is lacking because the exclusion order necessarily must rely for its reasonableness upon the assumption that all persons of Japanese ancestry may have a dangerous tendency to commit sabotage and espionage and to aid our Japanese enemy in other ways.

It is difficult to believe that reason, logic, or experience could be marshalled in support of such an assumption. That this forced exclusion was the result in good measure of this erroneous assumption of racial guilt, rather than [p] bona fide military necessity is evidenced by the Commanding General's Final Report on the evacuation from the Pacific Coast area.

Justification for the exclusion is sought, instead, mainly upon questionable racial and sociological grounds not [p] ordinarily within the realm of expert military judgment, supplemented by certain semi-military conclusions drawn from an unwarranted use of circumstantial evidence.

Individuals of Japanese ancestry are condemned because they are said to be "a large, unassimilated, tightly knit racial group, bound to an enemy nation by strong ties of race, culture, custom and religion. The report refers, without identity, to "numerous incidents of violence," as well as to other admittedly unverified or cumulative incidents.

From this, plus certain other events not shown to have been connected with the Japanese Americans, it is concluded that the "situation was fraught with danger to the Japanese population itself," and that the general public "was ready to take matters into its own hands.

The main reasons relied upon by those responsible for the forced evacuation, therefore, do not prove a reasonable relation between the group characteristics of Japanese Americans and the dangers of invasion, sabotage and espionage. The reasons appear, instead, to be largely an accumulation of much of the misinformation, half-truths and insinuations that for years have been directed against Japanese Americans by people with racial and economic prejudices -- the same people who have been among the foremost advocates of the evacuation.

Especially is this so when every charge relative to race, religion, culture, geographical location, and legal and economic status has been substantially discredited by independent studies made by experts in these matters.

No one denies, of course, that there were some disloyal persons of Japanese descent on the Pacific Coast who did all in their power to aid their ancestral land.

Marco s justified martial law

Similar disloyal activities have been engaged in by many persons of German, Italian and even more pioneer stock in our country. But to infer that examples of individual disloyalty prove group disloyalty and justify discriminatory action against the entire group is to deny that, under our system of law, individual guilt is the sole basis for deprivation of rights.

Moreover, this inference, which is at the very heart of the evacuation orders, has been used in support of the abhorrent and despicable treatment of minority groups by the dictatorial tyrannies which this nation is now pledged to destroy. To give constitutional sanction to that inference in this case, however well intentioned may have been the military command on the Pacific Coast, is to adopt one of the cruelest of the rationales used by our enemies to destroy the dignity of the individual and to encourage and open the door to discriminatory actions against other minority groups in the passions of tomorrow.

See House Report No. It is asserted merely that the loyalties of this group "were unknown and time was of the essence. Leisure and deliberation seem to have been more of the essence than speed. And the fact that conditions were not such as to warrant a declaration of martial law adds strength to the belief that the factors of time and military necessity were not as urgent as they have been represented to be.

Moreover, there was no adequate proof that the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the military and naval intelligence services did not have the espionage and sabotage situation well in hand during this long period. Nor is there any denial of the fact that not one person of Japanese ancestry was accused or convicted of espionage or sabotage after Pearl Harbor while they were still free, [n15] a fact which is some evidence of the loyalty of the vast majority of these individuals and of the effectiveness of the established methods of combatting these evils.

It [p] seems incredible that, under these circumstances, it would have been impossible to hold loyalty hearings for the merepersons involved -- or at least for the 70, American citizens -- especially when a large part of this number represented children and elderly men and women.

Marco s justified martial law

I dissent, therefore, from this legalization of racism.All for Nothing: Mina spent hundreds of years waiting for Meteora's return. Meteora ends up beating her, apparently easily, offscreen. Ambiguous Disorder: "Moon the Undaunted" showed that despite some oddness, she was quite attheheels.com, given her craziness in "Starstruck", something happened that .

5 days ago · Armed Forces of the Philippines chief of staff Carlito Galvez said martial rule was justified during the regime of the late dictator, Ferdinand Marcos.

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Philippines - Proclamation and Martial Law

On September 21, , Marcos issued Proclamation , declaring martial law over the entire country. Under the president's command, the military arrested opposition figures, including Benigno Aquino, journalists, student and labor activists, and criminal elements.

A total of about 30, detainees. The following is a list of characters from the Japanese manga and anime Gunslinger Girl.. Set in modern-day Italy the series revolves around the Social Welfare Agency, a government-funded organisation which is supposed to provide advanced medical care to those in need.

This, however, is a cover for a far different agenda: the patients, adolescent girls who have survived traumatic events, are.

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