In painting it generally took the form of an emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of classical themes and subject matter, using archaeologically correct settings and costumes.
Greek or Roman men armoured with swords and spears, e. People in static calm poses, draped in flowing Greek robes, Roman togas and sandals, e. Neoclassicism meaning New Classicism was born in the mids, originally in Rome but its popularity exploded in France, as a generation of French and other European art students finished their training and returned from Rome to their home countries with newly-rediscovered Greco-Roman Classical ideals.
Neoclassical art style was widely adopted and popularized by French artists, since France was the centre of culture and art in Europe at that time. The art movement was not limited to painting and sculpture; it was also manifested in literature, architecture and music, embraced by artists all over Europe and America.
Born on the eve of the Age of Revolution, it reflected the intellectual, social and political changes of that period. The Age of Enlightenment and the Grand Tour Ever since the fall of the Roman Empire, thirteen centuries earlier, Europeans had been nostalgically fascinated by the grandeur and glory of ancient Rome.
It was always in the intellectual background, hence several classical revivals emerged over the centuries, such as the one that materialized in Italian Renaissance art. However, it was powerfully reignited in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, due to the philosophical return to classical thought, and renewed appreciation of Greek and Roman cultures.
Being one of the leading advocates of Neoclassicism, German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann summed up the admiration of a new generation of artists behind such resurgence of classical tradition in his book History of Ancient Art The Ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii The revival was also inspired by the excavation of the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Such archaeological discoveries were the biggest news of the day. Ancient lost cities, frozen in time, preserved for centuries and about to give an accurate picture of life in antiquity. The excavated artifacts sparked the interest of people and artists in particular.
Several books were published about Graeco-Roman art like Antiquities of Athens of by English archaeologists James Stuart and Nicholas Revett and the European fascination with classical antiquity began to be reflected in paintings, fashion, furniture and even tableware and garden design.
Architecturally, the Arc de Triomphe of Paris built between and is one of the best known Neoclassical constructions. Also, the American Founding Fathers were in favor of the Neoclassical style. Many government buildings, universities and museums were built to look like Greek temples, for example the White House built between and the US Capitol built between The Age of Revolution The advent of revolutionary movements in France and America, based on classical ideals such as the democracy of ancient Athens and Rome, made Neoclassical art even more appealing.
As they rejected and revolted against the contemporary unjust governments, they found values and inspiration in the Greco-Roman past.
Concepts related to the republic and senate, of the ancient ruling system of Rome, provided the revolutionaries with a vision for the emerging American and French republics.
The basic reasons behind the French Revolution were poverty and famine, which provoked the rising of the impoverished society that included peasants, laborers and merchants against both the aristocracy and clergy.
Frustration with the monarchy and the Church turned violent and hundreds of priests were killed by mobs throughout the revolution, as happened in the September Massacres of Paris in Eventually, the French government replaced the quasi-state religion of Christianity with anti-clerical Secularism.
That hostility to religion explains why on the path to the revolution, Neoclassical artists portrayed themes of civic duty and allegiance to the state rather than to church or family.
They promoted ideals such as patriotism, courage and sacrifice.
The anti-clerical sentiment is evident in the radical approach of depicting civic virtues that were idealized by pagan Romans and Greeks, instead of biblical virtues and Christian saints. Modern-day fallen patriots and revolutionaries were mythologized and portrayed as heroes bravely meeting their demise in scenes that resemble religious martyrdom e.
Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David. One of the best known examples of neoclassical paintings was The Oath of the Horatii painted five years before the outbreak of the revolution. It was painted by French artist Jacques-Louis David whose artwork anticipated the revolution. Three-quarters of the French were illiterate which created an opportunity for art to become a political tool to arouse revolutionary fervor.Start studying Romantic Art of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Neoclassical and Romantic sculpture Neoclassicism. The 18th-century arts movement known as Neoclassicism represents both a reaction against the last phase of the Baroque and, perhaps more importantly, a reflection of the burgeoning scientific interest in classical antiquity.
Neoclassical art style was widely adopted and popularized by French artists, since France was the centre of culture and art in Europe at that time.
The art movement was not limited to painting and sculpture; it was also manifested in literature, architecture and music, embraced by . Romantic style would be revived in the beginning of the 20th century, notably through the works of poets linked to the Portuguese Renaissance (Renascença Portuguesa), such as Teixeira de Pascoais, Jaime Cortesão, Mário Beirão, among others, who can be considered Neo-Romantics.
Transcript of Art History: Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism.
NEOCLASSICISM This art style spanned from the mid 18th to mid 19th century. Neoclassicism came about when France was under the dictatorship of Napoleon A renewed interest in Classical ideas of art and design was a result of this style It was not only the dominant style of.
Johann Winckelmann, Thomas Jefferson, and other classicists of the 18th century did not use the term Neoclassicism to describe the antique revival that they were living through. But the term is used today to describe a multivalent cultural phenomenon that revalued antiquity between and