Pre-Christian[ edit ] The Indian Hindu epic, the Mahabharataoffers one of the first written discussions of a "just war" dharma-yuddha or "righteous war". In it, one of five ruling brothers asks if the suffering caused by war can ever be justified, and then a long discussion ensues between the siblings, establishing criteria like proportionality chariots cannot attack cavalry, only other chariots; no attacking people in distressjust means no poisoned or barbed arrowsjust cause no attacking out of rageand fair treatment of captives and the wounded. At the beginning of the war, there is the discussion of "just conduct" appropriate to the context of war.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Social justice is concerned with the just relationship between individuals and their society, often considering how privileges, opportunities, and wealth ought to be distributed among individuals.
Homans suggested that the root of the concept of justice is that each person should receive rewards that are proportional to their contributions. Egalitarian theories are typically less concerned with discussing who exactly will do the distributing or what effects their recommended policies will have on the production of the goods, services, or resources they wish to distribute.
Some variants of egalitarianism affirm that justice without equality is hollow and that equality itself is the highest justice, though such a formulation will have concrete meaning only once the main terms have been fleshed out. At a cultural level, egalitarian theories have developed in sophistication and acceptance during the past two hundred years.
Among the notable broadly egalitarian philosophies are communism, socialism, left-libertarianismand progressivism, which propound economic, political, and legal egalitarianism, respectively. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in OlomoucCzech Republic In his A Theory of JusticeJohn Rawls used a social contract argument to show that justice, and especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness: Rawls asks us to imagine ourselves behind a veil of ignorance that denies us all knowledge of our personalities, social statuses, moral characters, wealth, talents and life plans, and then asks what theory of justice we would choose to govern our society when the veil is lifted, if we wanted to do the best that we could for ourselves.
We don't know who in particular we are, and therefore can't bias the decision in our own favour. So, the decision-in-ignorance models fairness, because it excludes selfish bias.
Rawls argues that each of us would reject the utilitarian theory of justice that we should maximize welfare see below because of the risk that we might turn out to be someone whose own good is sacrificed for greater benefits for others.
Instead, we would endorse Rawls's two principles of justice: Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
In one sense, theories of distributive justice may assert that everyone should get what they deserve.
This is the first comprehensive study based on a detailed textual analysis of the classical works on war by Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, Mao Tse-tung, and to a lesser extent, Jomini and Machiavelli. Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers. The importance of the theory of just war faded with the revival of classical republicanism beginning with works of Thomas Hobbes. its progeny just war theory, resulting in a worldview far different from that of early “Christian realists” like Augustine and Aquinas. For brevity’s sake, this paper defines “classical” or “traditional” just war.
Theories disagree on the meaning of what is "deserved". According to meritocratic theories, goods, especially wealth and social statusshould be distributed to match individual merit, which is usually understood as some combination of talent and hard work. According to needs -based theories, goods, especially such basic goods as food, shelter and medical care, should be distributed to meet individuals' basic needs for them.
Marxism is a needs-based theory, expressed succinctly in Marx's slogan " from each according to his ability, to each according to his need ".ii Cicero and St. Augustine’s Just War Theory: Classical Influences on a Christian Idea Berit Van Neste ABSTRACT The theology of Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, and the origin of his theory of.
Time is what a clock is used to measure. Information about time tells the durations of events, and when they occur, and which events happen before which others, so time has a very significant role in the universe's organization.
America's most important contemporary political theorist, who died Oct. 21, warned that militarists and corporate capitalists, obsessed with creating a global empire, would extinguish our democracy. Just war, notion that the resort to armed force (jus ad bellum) is justified under certain conditions; also, the notion that the use of such force (jus in bello) should be limited in certain attheheels.com war is a Western concept and should be distinguished from the Islamic concept of jihad (Arabic: “striving”), or holy war, which in Muslim legal theory is the only type of just war.
CIVIL WAR. In "Democracy after Civil War: A Kantian Paradox," New York University, November 16, , Leonard Wantchekon presents a theory of "post-civil war democratization" which draws upon the model of political order among rational demons as well as sources from "classical political theory, contemporary democratic theory, and the state-building literature.".
Articles Just War Theory power that saves us both from that moral excess and that politi-cal folly.”6 But as even Morgenthau would admit, that does not mean we can ignore the ways that conceptions of morality—even.