Census Bureau There has been a very large shift from rural living to urban living throughout the US population from through As we discuss this change, we will continue to focus on what this means for seniors and senior healthcare.
Ancient history[ edit ] Africa has the longest and oldest economic history. Humanity originated in Africa, and as soon as human societies existed so did economic activity.
Earliest humans were hunter gatherers living in small, family groups. Even then there was considerable trade that could cover long distances. Archaeologists have found that evidence of trade in luxury items like metals and shells across the entirety of the continent were the main trades of the Berber peoplelived in dry areas and became nomadic herders, while in the savannah grasslands, cultivated crops and thus permanent settlement were possible.
Agriculture supported large towns, and eventually large trade networks developed between the towns.
Origins of agriculture[ edit ] The first agriculture in Africa began in the heart of the Sahara Desertwhich in BC was far more moist and densely populated than today.
Several native species were domesticated, most importantly pearl milletsorghum and cowpeaswhich spread through West Africa and the Sahel. The Sahara at this time was like the Sahel today. Its wide open fields made cultivation easy, but the poor soil and limited rain made intensive farming impossible.
The local crops were also not ideal and produced fewer calories than those of other regions. These factors limited surpluses and kept populations sparse and scattered.
Climatically it is linked to the Middle East and the Fertile Crescentand the agricultural techniques of that region were adopted wholesale. This included a different set of crops, such as wheatbarleyand grapes. North Africa was also blessed by one of the richest agricultural regions in the world in the Nile River valley.
With the arrival of agriculture, the Nile region became one of the most densely populated areas in the world, and Egypt home to one of the first civilizations. The drying of the Sahara created a formidable barrier between the northern and southern portions of the continent.
Two important exceptions were Nubian Sudanwhich was linked to Egypt by the Nile and Ethiopiawhich could trade with the northern regions over the Red Sea.
Especially from Nubia, ideas and technologies from the Middle East and Europe reached the rest of Africa. Historians believe that iron working developed independently in Africa. Unlike other continents Africa did not have a period of copper and bronze working before their Iron Age.
Copper is quite rare in Africa while iron is quite common. In Nubia and Ethiopia, iron, trade, and agricultural surpluses lead to the establishment of cities and civilizations.Colonialism and Imperialism. According to Wolfgang Reinhard, but by contrast the British succeeded in monopolising the slave trade as a most lucrative long-distance business.
When, during the course of the 19th century, the Italians, At the latest around , the European system of great powers stood before the challenge of global. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from to Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions CCOT Prompt.
Regional and Transregional Interactions C.E. to SNAPSHOT ~ C.E. End of Eurasian Classical Period - epidemics, political and economic A. Expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often changes in labor systems and the effect of religious conversions on. Oct 13, · Major Settlements, Immigration, and Naturalization in the s.
A new era of Scottish migration began as a result of the Act of Union between England and Scotland. Scots settled in colonial seaports. Lowland artisans and laborers left Glasgow to become indentured servants in tobacco colonies and New York. Analyze the Changes and Continuities in Long-Distance Migrations in the Period from to Be Sure to Include Specific Examples from at Least Two Different World Regions.
analysis of continuities and changes over time covering at least one of the periods in the course outline. It addresses, for example, technology, trade, culture, migrations, or environment.
The continuity and change over time questions require analysis of process and explanation of .